Adenoid also known as pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, are situated high in the throat behind the nose and are not visible through the mouth or nose without special instruments. Adenoids are part of the immune system, which helps fight infection and protects the body from bacteria and viruses. At times, they become infected, enlarged and may even cause airway obstruction. Adenoids are only present in children. They start to grow from birth and are biggest when your child is approximately three to five years old. By age seven to eight they start to shrink and by the late teens, are barely visible. The adenoids will have disappeared completely in adulthood. It may be necessary to remove the adenoids if they become swollen or enlarged due to infection or allergies. If your child’s adenoids are enlarged, it may be hard to breathe through the nose. The common features of adenoid enlargement are mouth breathing, nose sounds(snoring during sleep), nasal blocked, runny nose, repeated ear infections, restlessness during sleep, pauses in breathing for a few seconds at night(may indicate sleep apnea). Such obstruction to breathing causes snoring and disturbed sleep that leads to daytime sleepiness, and may even cause behavioral or school performance problems in some children. X-rays is sufficient in determining the size and shape of the adenoids. Removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy) may be recommended if there are recurrent infections despite antibiotic therapy, and/or difficulty breathing due to enlarged tonsils and/or adenoids. An adenoidectomy is a quick operation to remove the adenoids. It takes about 30 minutes to perform and is carried out in hospital by an (ENT) surgeon. So, if your child is between 3-5 years, having mouth breathing and snoring during sleep, have a check up for enlarged adenoid.